备考干货|2016年12月SAT写作考情回顾


来源:朱敏琦老师 沃邦   时间:2016-12-05 14:06:11

  12月SAT考试于今天落下帷幕,下面对本次考试写作部分进行回顾和分析。本次写作考题选自Americans’ Future Has toBe Multilingual,作者Linda Moore,全文共10段,作者论点是美国学校应该给学生提供第二语言课程。
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  一、试题全文

 
  Americans’ Future Has to Be Multilingual
  by Linda Moore
 
  P1 We Americans must confront a stark disadvantagewe face when it comes to the global economy. Some eight in 10 Americans speakonly English, and the number of schools teaching a foreign language is indecline, according to a new study by the Council on Foreign Relations. But theopposite is true among our economic competitors.
 
  P2 While some 200 million Chinese students arelearning English, only 24,000 Americans are studying Chinese, U.S. Departmentof Education statistics say. Foreign language degrees account for only 1percent of all U.S. undergraduate degrees. And fewer than 2 percent of U.S.undergraduates study abroad in a given year, the Education Department says.
 
  P3 Our nation is largely monolingual but isentering an increasingly multilingual world. More than half of European Unioncitizens speak a language other than their mother tongue, and more than aquarter speak at least three languages. This is because additional languagesare studied in European primary and secondary schools, and are taken up byEuropean college students in much larger numbers than in the United States.
 
  P4 The Council on Foreign Relations-sponsored taskforce report, headed by former New York City Schools Chancellor Joel Klein andformer Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice, concluded: "Education failure puts the United States' future economic prosperity, globalposition, and physical safety at risk." It warned that the country"will not be able to keep pace — much less lead — globally unless it movesto fix the problems it has allowed to fester for too long."
 
  P5 For decades, our children were deprived of bilingualor multilingual education out of a mistaken belief that it took time away fromother subjects, hindering students' academic development. But recent researchhas shown that learning another language is a wise investment, rather than awaste. Research from the University of Georgia found that bilingual schoolchildren perform better on standardized tests including the Scholastic AptitudeTest (SAT) than their monolingual peers. A George Mason University studydiscovered that younger students who had enrolled in a second languageimmersion program outperformed those who did not in coursework, aswell as on standardized tests, throughout their scholastic careers.
 
  P6 Educators now conclude that learning additionallanguages improves one's ability to focus, plan and solve problems. Among otherbenefits, this means that such students are better able to move efficientlyfrom one subject to another. The D.C.-based Center for Applied Linguistics hasascertained that the earlier we learn a foreign language, the greater thebenefits. Moreover, these benefits can last a lifetime. Learning anotherlanguage can help people stave off the effects of aging,including preventing the onset of dementia and other age-related conditionslike Alzheimer's, according to research done by University of Californianeuroscientists.
 
  P7 The benefits of learning a new language gobeyond the classroom. When students graduate, being fluent in a second languageimproves their career prospects. The Bureau of LaborStatistics reports that a number of emerging occupations need workers whocan speak and write in more than one language. A Universityof Floridastudy revealed that in large, linguistically diverse cities suchas Miami and San Antonio, the ability to speak a second language translatesinto more than $7,000 of increased annual income. We want our students to haveaccess to these opportunities and more.
 
  P8 The economic importance of being bilingual ishighlighted by the fact that 31 percent of company executives can speak atleast two languages, according to international executive search firm.
 
  P9 Using multilingualism, we are expanding thescope of children's learning at a time when public policy limits schoolaccountability to math and reading. Most policymakers want their children tohave global skill sets but do not encourage this in our public schools.
 
  P10 Other countries have learned this lesson andhave made the necessary commitments to teach their students additionallanguages. Their students' exposure to additional languages is payingdividends. I would like to see the U.S. Department of Education encourage localeducation authorities to invest in bilingual and multilingual education. Giventhe global competition for good jobs, this is not a luxury, but a necessity. Itwill help our children, and our nation, to succeed in the economy of tomorrow.
 

  二、文章分析

 
  P1:给出现状/问题,即十分之八的美国人只说一种语言(英语),而其他国家恰恰相反。
 
  P2:中美对比和美国国内数据突出美国学生对外语的不重视。
 
  P3:以欧盟国家为例,突出世界各国都在重视外语。
 
  P4:指出语言教育的失败将会导致的严重后果(puts the United States' future economic prosperity, global position,and physical safety at risk)。
 
  P5:引用研究指出学习外语能带来学习上的好处,如课程作业(coursework)更好,标化考试(如SAT)成绩更高。
 
  P6:学习外语的更多好处,如improvesone's ability to focus, plan and solve problems和staveoff the effects of aging。
 
  P5-6两段主要侧重学习外语对学生在校学习期间的影响。当然,严格来说stave off the effects of aging不算。但根据作者在P7首句The benefits of learning a new language go beyond the classroom,还是建议把论证逻辑分为校内校外两条线索。
 
  P7-8:强调学习外语在学生毕业离校后的好处——对薪酬和职业发展有帮助,援引了来自The Bureau of Labor Statistics,University ofFlorida和international executive search firm的证据。
 
  P9:指出公共政策的不足,只顾数学和阅读。
 
  P10:总结主论点(exposureto additional languages is paying dividends)并呼吁教育部采取行动(encouragelocal education authorities to invest in bilingual and multilingual education)。
 

  三、写作思路(仅供参考)

 
  Contrast:P1和(或)P2。P1是把美国和它的economiccompetitors进行对比,P2则是把学英语的中国学生和学中文的美国学生进行对比,都是突出美国人对学习外语的不重视。
 
  Evidence:P3,以欧盟国家为例,突出世界各国都在重视外语。P4,引用专家言论指出语言教育的失败将会导致的严重后果。
 
  Reasoning:P5678四段。P5-6主要侧重学习外语对学生在校学习期间的影响;P7-8强调学习外语在学生毕业离校后的好处——对薪酬和职业发展有帮助。
 
  Appeal to emotion:P7,the ability to speak a second languagetranslates into more than $7,000 of increased annual income。一般来说7000美元谁看了都会兴奋一下。
 
  Irony:P9,Most policymakers want their children to have global skill sets butdo not encourage this in our public schools.一边嚷嚷孩子要有globalskill sets,一边不鼓励学校教外语,这有点黑色幽默。
 
  Word choice:P10,this is not a luxury, but a necessity.这是我个人认为这次考试最精彩的地方,luxury这个词11月北美题才刚刚考过,用法和目的都一模一样。以下是11月北美题(Bad for the birds, bad for us all)相关原文:Conservation is not a luxury.这次12月题,甚至把后半句解释(but a necessity)都补全了!我在12月SAT冲刺班上还特地讲过这个词要如何分析,相信同学们应该都忘了……

  总 结

 
  我个人以为,这次写作是今年3月全球首考以来,难度最低的一篇(至少在亚太考区是这样),简直就是CB送给大家的圣诞节礼物。正常情况下,应该要搞定了。
 
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  作者:朱敏琦
  沃邦教育SAT教研组组长,教龄11年,新SAT1510,老SAT2300,ACT写作33分;翻译硕士,中国译协会员,100万笔译经验,30万字申请文书经验,译著《在大英博物馆读古希腊》。
 


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