原创|2017年5月SAT亚太场考试重难点点评,附作文原文


来源:   时间:2017-05-08 09:38:47

  5月SAT考试于今天落下帷幕,这次考试整体感觉阅读偏难,语法超简单,甚至说闭着眼睛全对都不过分,数学正常。下面以点评考试为主,并附上考题的简要信息帮助大家了解此次考题状况。(各部分考试内容回顾见文末)
 

  阅 读

 
  第一篇小说
  A Strange And Sublime Address
 
  第二篇社科
  Why We Misunderstand What Others Think, Believe, Feel, and Want
 
  第三篇科学
  Is dwarf planet ceres the wayward cousin of pluto
 
  第四篇历史双篇
  Speech Before Virginia Ratifying Convention
  Speech at the Virginia Ratifying Convention
 
  第五篇科学
  A Tangled Tale of Plant Evolution
 
  这次阅读部分整体偏难。
 
  小说:超级简单,难度相当于或不超过1701北美第一篇。但这没什么好高兴的,因为后面的科学和历史都比较难。
 
  科学/社科:三篇文章各有各的难点。比如第二篇社科文章还算容易理解,但附的柱状图很有迷惑性,图表后面有三段注释文字,对应图中三组黑色灰色柱,且互相之间差异很微妙。整张图的感觉类似于1611亚太第五篇Principles of animal behavior(老鼠的排外心理)的配图。
 
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  这张图当时有好多同学把灰色和黑色柱直接对应到横轴,比如把第一组灰黑柱分别对应female和male,然后悲剧。今天的图更邪恶......
 
  第三篇需要注意的是有两次反转,前面一大半都是科学家提出理论和证据支持Ceres最初属于Pluto,后面出现其他科学家反驳,最后又有人提出解决争议的途径,三块内容需要分清。文章后面有一张大表格,列出太阳系多颗行星的四个数据,如距离太阳距离,密度,半径等等,还算正常。
 
  最后一篇A Tangled Tale of Plant Evolution科研逻辑比较难抓,加上时间压力,有部分同学甚至整篇来不及做。
 
  这次科学/社科三篇再次证明了一点,就是读科学/社科类文章,如果抓不住核心的科研逻辑,那么解题基本上是崩溃的,题目也最多是最多一些问局部的细节题。
 
  第四篇历史考察的是弗吉尼亚州的邦联联邦之争(或者叫Confederation和Constitution之争),没有相关历史背景会比较吃亏,好在可汗学院历史类有多篇相关题材的文章,如P23/26/27(沃邦内部编号)。
 
 

  语 法

 
  之前说过,这次语法超级简单,闭着眼睛满分不是一个夸张的说法,比如去年5月亚太语法,简直在难度上降了一个数量级。不过这似乎也从侧面印证了前面阅读的难度之高,个人猜测,官方可能是想用语法对冲一下。
 
 

  写 作

 
  这次写作题选自How To Increase the Number of Women Winning Nobel Prizes,作者Meredith Wadman,主论点是女性科研人员应该获得更多的职场便利。全文如下:
 
  The mother of tweens was folding laundry at 5 a.m. before going to an early spinning class when the phone rang.  It was October 2009 and Carol Greider, a biologist at Johns Hopkins University, picked up and heard a voice from Stockholm. She had won that year’s Nobel Prize in medicine.
 
  Despite Greider’s accomplishment – she earned the award for discovering telomerase, an enzyme of huge relevance to aging and cancer – it is this image of her making use of every waking minute that has stuck with me four years later. It is an image that I deeply identify with, not because I’m a scientist, but because I’m a woman juggling family and career.  The mental picture helped me understand Greider as a flesh-and-blood mortal, not a superwoman whose lofty level of achievement I could never aspire to.
 
  Unfortunately, Greider remains a rarity in the pantheon of Nobel scientists. And that’s partly because we haven’t done enough to help young female scientists balance the demands of academic research with the pull of family responsibility. That needs to change.
 
  Admittedly, today’s situation is better than it was when Greider entered grad school in the early 80s, never mind in the dark days of the preceding decades. Then, when women were scarcely to be found at undergraduate lab benches, the results in the rarefied reaches of Stockholm couldn’t help but be dismal. Since the awards were launched in 1901, two physics laureates have been women: Marie Curie in 1903 and Maria Goeppert Mayer in 1963.  In chemistry, four of the 165 winners have been women. (Marie Curie was one of them, in 1911; she is the only woman to have won two Nobels.)  Women have won 5 percent of the coveted awards in physiology or medicine.  And it was 2009 before Elinor Ostrom, of Indiana University and Arizona State University, became the first-ever female laureate in economics.
 
  In fact, 2009 was something of a banner year for women — Greider shared her award with her mentor, Elizabeth Blackburn, of the University of California at San Francisco; and Israel’s Ada Yonath shared the prize in chemistry. Since then, men have continued to sweep the science awards.
 
  To be a female Nobel winner has not only required brilliance, but also preternatural determination in the face of cultural, social and political obstacles. The Italian neurologist Rita Levi-Montalcini secretly conducted experiments in her bedroom in Mussolini’s Italy. Francoise Barre-Sinoussi, the Parisian who co-discovered the AIDS virus – and whose father thought a women’s place was in the home – was in the lab on her wedding day.  Her fiancé had to call her to remind her to turn up at the ceremony. Barbara McClintock, the U.S. geneticist who won the prize in 1983, was nearly prevented from attending college by her mother. She was afraid higher education would make her daughter unmarriageable.
 
  All of this was decades ago, before  recent campaigns to encourage more young women to choose STEM (science, technology, engineering and math) careers; and, in the US, before the Civil Rights Act, affirmative action and Title IX. What’s the excuse in 2013?
 
  One partial explanation for the bleak numbers:  the awards often honor discoveries made decades earlier. Even today, that means spotlighting accomplishments from a time when female scientists were a rarity. Take the 2013 prize in physiology or medicine, which was awarded earlier this month to James Rothman, Randy Schekman and Thomas Südhof for their work teasing out the micro-mechanisms that allow cells to transport their molecular cargo to specific destinations. Their key papers in this area were published between 1979 and 1993.
 
  Still, while it may be tempting to conclude that just a little more patience is required before a raft of lady laureates take Stockholm by storm, it’s important to note that promising numbers in biology where by 2010 U.S. women were collecting 53 percent of PhD’s don’t translate to other disciplines:  that same year, women earned 39 percent of chemistry PhD’s,  34 percent of economics doctorates and 20 percent of PhD’s in physics.
 
  What’s more, systemic issues are holding women back across the sciences, meaning that we may not see more female laureates by simply funneling more and more women through PhD programs. The hard truth is that women with brand new doctorates – so called post-doc’s —  enter their prime childbearing years exactly as they encounter the make-or-break time when they must compete for tenure- track positions. The competition is brutal, the hours in the lab never-ending – and the attrition of women is far higher than that of men. A 2009 survey of post-doctoral scientists from all disciplines in the University of California system found that women who had children after they earned PhDs were twice as likely as male postdocs – or as women doctorates with no children and no plans to have them – to drop their goal of becoming a research professor.
 
  What, specifically, should institutions do to offer such support? Universities can make meaningful policy changes, such as allowing women with young children to stop the tenure clock for a period of time — an option available at some but not all academic centers. They should ensure that young female scientists have dedicated, top-notch mentors.  And they can guarantee paid maternity land parental leave—something that’s woefully lacking for junior scientists at most U.S. institutions.
 
  Federal agencies also have a role to play. Big funders, led by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have already implemented policies like no-cost grant extensions that allow scientists with family obligations extra time to complete a project, and others that allow fellowship periods to be extended or deferred for childcare purposes.  But agencies can, and should, do more. One task the government is especially suited to is longitudinal data collection on those family-friendly policies.  Such data isn’t being collected systematically, and without it we can’t know what policy changes are working, and which ones aren’t.
 
  If we want top-drawer women to stay in science careers — and this country, beset by daunting, and growing, global science competition, could certainly use them – institutions of all stripes need to show a far more serious commitment to supporting them.
 
  To put it another way, if we want to see more women celebrating in Stockholm, we should strive to build a world in which the likes of Carol Greider are hardly ever to be found folding the laundry at 5 in the morning.
 
  朱敏琦老师
 
  沃邦教育SAT教研组组长,十一年教龄,新SAT1510,老SAT2300,ACT写作33分;翻译硕士,中国译协会员,100万笔译经验,30万字申请文书经验,译著《在大英博物馆读古希腊》。


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