2016年12月新SAT阅读考点与难点回顾(附历史篇原文)


来源:   时间:2016-12-05 15:02:51

  
  2016年的新SAT考试随着12月的考场关闭而结束了,这一年里变化很多,对同学们的考验也增加不少,在回首这一年之前,我们先来回顾一下12月新SAT阅读部分的考试情况,譬如题型,考点或者难点。

  出题顺序:文学、历史、科学、社会科学、科学。
 
  变化:历史部分出现双篇文章
 
  整体难度:科技文难度跟以往持平,文学部分与历史部分的双篇文章有难度,另外,细节类题目依然给考试造成了不小的困难。
 

  详细分析

 
  1、第一篇 题材:文学 难度较高
 
  A Room with a View
\
  第一篇文章节选自英国作家E·M·福斯特的长篇小说《看得见风景的房间》。该小说主要描述了露西和乔治的爱情故事,故事的场地发生在意大利。开篇第一句话就是丈夫要拯救妻子。讲述了女主角家庭,女主的爸爸妈妈住在一个特别有钱的街区。邻居就觉得他们很有钱,妻子父母死后,把这套房子留给了妻子。后来妻子和丈夫去了意大利,女主后来看法改变了,她觉得之前的community很boring,但是丈夫觉得意大利的社区很狭隘,讲述了一个文化冲突。
 
  本次考试节选部分内容主要是关于文化生活的观念差异对比:意大利相对自由,允许自然的激情,与压抑虚伪的英格兰社会形成对照。在意大利旅行期间,露西的世界观发生了戏剧性的改变。
 
  题目还原:
 
  主旨题
  应选travelling abroad may change one's attitude toward life。
 
  细节题
  问Lucy对Italy的看法。应选equality/ parity。
 
  单询证题
  问kindly-affluent的意思。应选包含a circle of rich, pleasant people的行号。
 
  词汇题
  问broad的意思。应选worldly。
 
  2、第二篇 题材:历史双篇 难度较高
 
  Letters of John Adams, Addressed to His Wife
 
  历史双篇均选自美国第二任总统约翰·亚当斯写给妻子的信。此信写于独立宣言发布6个月后,信中探讨了美国独立宣言的意义所在,作者认为独立可能机遇与挑战并存,但美国必须获得独立。
 
  P1原文:
  When I look back to the Year 1761, and recollect the Argument concerning Writs of Assistance, in the Superiour Court, which I have hitherto considered as the Commencement of the Controversy, between Great Britain and America, and run through the whole Period from that Time to this, and recollect the series of political Events, the Chain of Causes and Effects, I am surprized at the Suddenness, as well as Greatness of this Revolution. Britain has been fill'd with Folly, and America with Wisdom, at least this is my judgment. -- Time must determine. It is the Will of Heaven, that the two Countries should be sundered forever. It may be the Will of Heaven that America shall suffer Calamities still more wasting and Distresses yet more dreadfull. If this is to be the Case, it will have this good Effect, at least: it will inspire Us with many Virtues, which We have not, and correct many Errors, Follies, and Vices, which threaten to disturb, dishonour, and destroy Us. -- The Furnace of Affliction produces Refinement, in States as well as Individuals. And the new Governments we are assuming, in every Part, will require a Purification from our Vices, and an Augmentation of our Virtues or they will be no Blessings. The People will have unbounded Power. And the People are extreamly addicted to Corruption and Venality, as well as the Great. [The letterbook copy of this letter includes the following sentence:] [ I am not without Apprehensions from this Quarter.]-- But I must submit all my Hopes and Fears, to an overruling Providence, in which, unfashionable [ as] the Faith may be, I firmly believe.
 
  第二篇说的是,经过数个月之后,发现拟定独立宣言的还是一件好事,没有更多的时间来反思,最后发现好事多于坏事。这个双篇历史属于立场相同,没有太多不同点。
 
  P2原文:
  Had a Declaration of Independency been made seven Months ago, it would have been attended with many great and glorious Effects . . . . We might before this Hour, have formed Alliances with foreign States. -- We should have mastered Quebec and been in Possession of Canada ....
 
  But on the other Hand, the Delay of this Declaration to this Time, has many great Advantages attending it. -- The Hopes of Reconciliation, which were fondly entertained by Multitudes of honest and well meaning tho weak and mistaken People, have been gradually and at last totally extinguished. -- Time has been given for the whole People, maturely to consider the great Question of Independence and to ripen their judgments, dissipate their Fears, and allure their Hopes, by discussing it in News Papers and Pamphletts, by debating it, in Assemblies, Conventions, Committees of Safety and Inspection, in Town and County Meetings, as well as in private Conversations, so that the whole People in every Colony of the 13, have now adopted it, as their own Act. -- This will cement the Union, and avoid those Heats and perhaps Convulsions which might have been occasioned, by such a Declaration Six Months ago.
 
  But the Day is past. The Second Day of July 1776, will be the most memorable Epocha, in the History of America.
 
  题目还原:
 
  双篇关系题
  应选P2 expands on the subject of P1。
 
  双篇中心题
  问central claim。应选既有challenges也有new promises。
 
  询证题
  关于第一篇,问relationship between America and Britain。选大概是注定要分开的选项。对应原文行号含有it is God's will to make them asunder...。
 
  词汇题
  问address的意思。应选attend。
 
  3、第三篇 题材:科学 难度中等
 
  Madness of crowds, single ants beat colonies at easy choices
 
  讲的是蚂蚁的swarm intellegence, 两个实验。
 
\
 
  第一个科学题材文章是Ed Yong2013年7月30日发表在《国家地理》杂志上的一篇文章。在碰到简单的选择上,也就是nest区别极大,蚂蚁在一个群组更胜出,因为它们采用的是方法是 individual 蚂蚁选出好的,告诉第二个ant,同意了就来第三个ant,以此类推的 dandem-run模式(这里有一道题)。
 
  第二个实验 researches 调节了灯光,让nest的暗度变得异常接近,结果 group ant 就出现了很大的问题。因为它们采用的方式是投票机制,之前的那个 dandem-run。导致group更容易出现问题。Individual ant之所以更好,是因为它们有更多的option比较两个nest 孰优孰劣一下便知。
 
  作者认为以前人们几乎都认为蚁群的力量要大于单个蚂蚁的战斗力量,尤其是在处理比较困难的问题时,比如建造救生筏,攻击大型猎物,吓退大象。但是,作者在文章中支持了一个新的观点:如果蚂蚁筑巢地址选择得好,单兵作战能力实际上优于群体作战能力。
 
  题目还原:
 
  主旨题
  直接改标题。选indvidual ants在简单选择上打败colonies。
 
  细节题
  问实验选择Temnothorax ants的原因。应选他们喜欢darkness,能通过此选择nests。
 
  词汇题
  问matter。应选issue。
 
  询证题
  问文中的实验设置和过去有什么不同。应选他们manipulate了光的强度。
 
  4.第四篇 题材:社会科学 难度中等
 
  The best lie detectors in the workplace
 
  文章选在于《华盛顿邮报》,文章发表于2013年4月5日。作者Adam Grunt是沃顿商学院的一名教授。这是一篇关于领导力的文章,作者认为最好的领导不必是任何时候都对他人持以信任态度,而是大多数时候相信大多数人,对别人持有信念的人才能够走得更远。
 
  题目还原:
 
  询证题
  关于实验的设置condition。应选有一半apllicants是撒谎的,有一半不撒谎。
 
  词汇题
  问spot的意思。应选discern。
 
  询证题
  问实验前人们普遍对于lie detectors的看法。应选他们会更信任看起来skeptical的managers。
 
  5.第五篇 题材:科学 难度中等
 
  New Look at Ancient Mineral Could Scrap a Test for Early Oxygen
 
  最后一篇文章选自《科学》杂志,发表于2014年2月28日。测量澳大利亚深海的一种sediment,看是否含有某种物质,可以trap oxygen。最初的实验是oxygen出现的很早,后来发现方法有错误。后来更加关注某些矿物质,发现oxygen的出现比预想的要晚很久。
 
  题目还原:
 
  两道主旨题
  直接改写标题,应该选new research质疑了旧的assumption。
 
  询证题
  问从hematite中能知道什么。应该选没有tectonic plates的出现可能hematite没有机会形成。
 


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