ACT阅读重点自然科学词汇解析


来源:   时间:2017-06-30 14:51:36

暑假来啦,这也是准备九月act考试的一个黄金时段,今天小编就给大家列出了act阅读考试必备的一些单词,以及它们在真题当中出现的场景。
 
今天我们首先列出的是阅读考试,自然科学的篇章中常见的一些话题词汇。

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在act阅读考试自然科学的文章中,最常考的话题有三个,分别是:
 
animal,plant,和astronomy
 
这里给大家列出了这三个话题中最常考的高频词汇。
 
Plant
 
Bark:tough protective covering of the woody stems
 
63C NS Line 39
 
The giant redwood has cinnamon-coloured bark, which may grow to a massive 18 in/45 cm thick.
 
Grove: a small growth of trees
 
63C NS Line 5
 
Today they are a truly relict species, occurring only in isolated groves on the western slopes of the Sierra Nevada in California.
 
Pollen: a fine powder produced by flowers
 
61B NS line 10
 
Young workers of five days of age or more who have been feeding heavily on pollen produce for the larvae a protein-rich substance called bee milk or royal jelly.
 
Sap: a watery solution of sugars, salts, and minerals that circulates through a plant
 
65E NS Line10
 
They are large—and noisy一for insects that feast on sap: the smallest are 10 millimeters (just under half an inch) long, the largest 100 millimeters (four inches)
 
Stem: a slender structure that supports a plant
 
65E NS Line 12
 
Female cicadas lay their eggs in the stems of plants or in trees.
 
Trunk: the main stem of a tree
 
63C NS Line 13
 
The largest trunk of any redwood is found on a tree in Alder Creek, which averages 53 ft/16 m around its base.
 
Animal
 
Abdomen: belly
 
65E NS line 56
 
A click from the rib of a tymbal produces high sound pressures within the cicada's abdomen.
 
Anatomy: the branch of morphology that deals with the structure of animals
 
66C NS line 78
 
Neanderthals started thinking about these people in terms of their behavior and not just their anatomy.
 
Burrow: a hole in the ground made by an animal for shelter
 
65E NS line 14
 
Later, the newly hatched young drop to the ground and burrow in search of plant roots to tap.
 
Corpse: the dead body
 
61B NS line 69
 
They carry the corpses of other bees a distance from the hive and drop them to the ground.  
 
Demise: death
 
OG1 NS line 70
 
But the best illustration of dinosaurian capability may well be the fact most cited against them their demise.
 
Ectothermy
 
61D NS line 9
 
Skeptics counter that, “ectothermy” the proper label for cold bloodedness, was the logical strategy for dinosaurs living in the Mesozoic Era.
 
Endothermy
 
61D NS line 3
 
For some, endothermy, the scientific name for warm bloodedness, is the only way to explain the dinosaurs' evolutionary success.
 
Gland: an organ of the body which produces a substance that the body needs
 
61B NS line 31
 
At the end of ten days the glands on the head of the nurse begin to shrink; she can no longer produce royal jelly.
 
Herd: a group of animals of one kind that live and feed together
 
OG1 NS line 64
 
Did some dinosaurs live in herds?
 
Intruder: a person who goes into a place where they are not supposed to be
 
61B NS line
 
Others guard the entrance to the hive; they use their stingers to attack intruders, including honey-stealing bees from other hives.
 
Larva/Larvae: the immature free-living form of life
 
Eels hatch in the Sargasso as larvae and are carried by the ocean currents to either Europe or the United States, a journey that can cover thousands of miles and take years.
 
Metabolism
 
65C NS line 61
 
Deep-diving submarines found “cryptoendolithic” organisms whose metabolism is driven by heat from a geothermal source.
 
Microbe
 
65C NS line 65
 
Some researchers argue that many of these microbes belong to a distinct and previously unrecognized branch of life.
 
Organ:a fully differentiated structural and functional unit in an animal that is specialized for some particular function
 
65D NS line 32
 
Bluefin tuna thrive in waters as cold as 40 degrees Fahrenheit and as warm as 75 degrees Fahrenheit but unlike swordfish, they do not possess organs whose chief function is to produce heat. Instead they retain the heat they: generate swimming.
 
Organism
 
65C NS line 61
 
Deep-diving submarines found “cryptoendolithic” organisms whose metabolism is driven by heat from a geothermal source.
 
Pupil
 
67C NS Line 59
 
Their pupils will expand and turn blue.
 
Skull: the bony skeleton of the head of vertebrates
 
65D NS Line 85
 
They could be guided by internal com- 85 passes of magnetite chips embedded in their skulls; by the warmth, salinity, or motion of the current
 
Tissue: the material forming animal or plant cells
 
61D NS line 32
 
These elegant patterns form when growing bone meets and meshes with connective tissue, capturing blood vessels in dense, woven structure called Haversian canals.
 
Vessel: a vein in the body
 
61D NS line 32
 
These elegant patterns form when growing bone meets and meshes with connective tissue, capturing blood vessels in dense, woven structure called Haversian canals.
 
Sentience: ['sen??ns] n. 知觉 the faculty through which the external world is apprehended
 
63E SS Line 78
 
What “are you seeing when you see sentience in a creature?”
 
Creature: [?krit??] n. 生物 a living organism characterized by voluntary movement
 
63E SS Line 78
 
What “are you seeing when you see sentience in a creature?”
 
Neuron:[?n?rɑ:n] n. 神经细胞 a cell that is specialized to conduct nerve impulses
 
63E SS Line 88
 
But there are no neurons or synapses in the human brain that aren’t also in animals.
 
Stimulate: [?st?mj??let] v. 刺激 cause to be alert and energetic
63E SS Line 8
 
At Central Park the exercise with the log and snack goes by the grander name of “animal enrichment” and is intended to stimulate the bears’ minds as well as their appetites.
 
Chew: to bite the food several times before swallowing it
 
61B NS line 42
 
Workers roll the wax up away from their abdomens with the legs, and chew and soften it with saliva.
 
Digest
 
67C NS line 58
They will never eat again, and their digestive systems will atrophy.
 
Feast: eat
 
65E NS line10
 
They are large—and noisy一for insects that feast on sap: the smallest are 10 millimeters (just under half an inch) long, the largest 100 millimeters (four inches).
 
Forage: the act of searching for food and provisions
 
Plummet: decline dramatically
 
65D NS line 46
 
Warm venous blood flowing away from muscles heats cold blood coming in through the arteries, enabling bluefin to retain 98 percent of their body heat, giving them free rein to forage in cold waters and to dip in and out of the Gulf Stream, where sea temperatures plummet as much as 27 degrees Fahrenheit across one nautical mile.
 
Astronomy
 
Crater: a bowl-shaped geological formation at the top of a volcano
 
OG3 NS Lline33
 
“The basic idea,” J Melosh says, “is that an impact doesn’t just open a crater. With high velocities, the projectile vaporizes and expands into the atmosphere.”
 
Lava:rock that in its molten form (as magma) issues from volcanos
 
65C NS Line74
 
One of the first Martian rocks to be analyzed by the rover from NASA’s Pathfinder spacecraft appears to be andesite, a type of lava found in the Columbia Basin, an area some view as an apt geological analog to Mars.
 
Stellar: being or relating to or resembling or emanating from stars
 
But only one person in ten thousand is an astronomer. What possible relevance could these stellar explosions thousands of light years away have to all the others, whose business lies purely on or near the Earth’s surface?
(from ACT备考)


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